The idea of jurisdiction plays a role in determining which code is acceptable for specific litigation.

The power or authority given to a court to hear the case in front of it is known as jurisdiction. If a court does not have jurisdiction over a specific case or topic, it cannot hear it. A geographical region over which the court’s authority extends is also known as jurisdiction. There are two sorts of jurisdiction.

There are two types of jurisdictions: original jurisdiction and appellate jurisdiction.


The term “original jurisdiction” refers to the court’s ability to hear the matter initially. It refers to a court that takes notice of matters that may be handled in the first instance by this court. The court of appeal’s original jurisdiction refers to cases in which the court has the unique authority to be the first to rule in a certain way. This indicates that the case hasn’t been heard in a lower court before, and it’s being brought up for the first time.

  • State trial court is one of the courses with original jurisdiction.
  • family court
  •  traffic court
  • Bankruptcy court
  •  tax court
  •  Juvenile court

Appellant court (Court of appeals)

Any court of law that has the authority to hear an appeal from a trial court or other legal tribunal is known as an appellate court. The court determines the level of the difference it would grant to the lower court’s ruling based on whether the appeal is one of fact or law under its standard of review and the appellant’s. An appeal court normally defends the trial court’s decision that it is the trial judge’s or jury’s responsibility to find out the evidence and see witness testimony when considering a factual question. When reviewing a court’s judgment on a factual matter, the court of appeals looks for obvious mistakes. If the appellant feels the lower court misapplied the evidence or the law, the appeal court evaluates legal questions that offer no defence and may reserve or amend the previous court’s ruling. The appellate court can also examine a lower judge’s discretionary decision, such as whether a fresh trial order was properly given or evidence was admitted. The decision of the lower court is only overturned if there is an abuse of discretion.

Jurisdiction of the appellant court

The appellant court exercises appellate authority to examine a decision made by a lower court. The appeal court does not retry the whole case, but rather examines and rules on a single disagreement point. The Indian Supreme Court is the country’s highest court of justice, considering civil and criminal matters. The majority of appeal power comes from the law. The appeal against the court’s review consists primarily of a completely new hearing in defence of the lower court’s actual judgment or a review of the lower court’s relevant legal conclusion. The capacity of the highest court to examine and amend the outcome of a lower court’s verdict is known as appeal jurisdiction. The appellate court will look into the question of de novo law (deference) and may overturn or amend the lower court’s decision if the appeal court determines that the fact or law was applied incorrectly by the lower court.

For example: In civil matters, an appeal involves disagreements between persons or institutions such as businesses over money. An appeal for the enforcement of the public code of behavior, which is qualified by state legislation, can be filed in criminal proceedings.



The supreme court is India’s highest court of appeal, succeeding both the federal court and the British Council as the highest court appeal. It is primarily a court of appeal, with the power to hear appeals against lower court judgments. It has wind appellate jurisdiction. The supreme court’s apparent power can be classified as an appealing constitutional matter appeal in a civil matter. In a criminal case, an appeal is made. Special leave  to appeal

Civil lawsuits

The decision can be appealed by any party. The supreme court has both original and appellate jurisdiction in civil appeals. The supreme court of India’s appellant jurisdiction is controlled by Article 136 of the Indian Constitution. The article empowers the Supreme Court to grant leave to appeal against any order made by a high court in India, including cases involving contracts, intellectual property, property, succession, transfer of property, leave, labour, land acquisition, will and probate arbitration, matrimonial, and other matters. Any order of a high court in a civil matter or writ petition can be challenged in India’s supreme court by filing a special leave petition once the appeal has been filed and numbered. Normally, matters are heard for admission within 15 days of the date of numbering, and the above-mentioned petition, that is the appeal petition, should be filed within 60 days of the date of passing of the order by the High court and the supreme court finds sufficient reason for filing with until that time.

In criminal proceedings, the defendant may appeal his or her conviction or sentence, and the attorney general may send a sentence that is deemed too lenient in more serious situations to the court of appeals. A guilty conviction may be appealed, but if the defendant is found not guilty, the government may not attend. In a criminal case, each party has the right to appeal the sentence given following a guilty conviction.

There is a right of appeal in family law matters.

  • Strangers cannot initiate an appeal under section 96 of the code of civil procedure unless they can show that they are negatively impacted by the degree in issue or that any of their legal rights are jeopardised by the bench, according to the supreme court.

In what cases does the Supreme Court have original jurisdiction?

Original, appellant and advisory jurisdiction are all available to India’s highest court.

According to article 131 of the constitution, the supreme court has original and exclusive jurisdiction over any dispute

  1. Between the government of India and one or more states or territories.
  2. Between the Indian government and any state or states on the one hand, and one or more states on the other;
  3. A relationship between two or more states.

Furthermore, Article 32 of the constitution gives the supreme court broad original jurisdiction over the enforcement of basic rights, allowing it to issue direction orders or writs such as Habeas corpus, Mandamus, Prohibition, Quo warranto, and Certiorari. The supreme court has been given the authority to order the transfer of any civil or criminal matter from one state to another state’s high court in order to enforce them.


Original, appellate, and supervisory jurisdiction are all exercised by the top court.

The High Court retains Original jurisdiction.

In a few cases, the High Court has the authority to hear the dispute in the first instance, rather than waiting for an appeal. Like the Supreme Court, the High Court has original jurisdiction over admiralty, wills, marriage divorce, corporation law, contempt of court, and elections of MPs and MLAs.

The High Court has Appellate jurisdiction.

In both civil and criminal cases, the high court considers appealing from lower courts.

SEC 96, Code of civil procedure

In general, an appeal lies from any decree passed by the court. In cases, where the value of the suit does not exceed Rs.10, 000 An appeal can be filed only on a question of law.

When a decree has been passed against the Defendant as “Ex- Parte “, i.e. without his appearance, no appeal is allowed.


A regular first appeal may be preferred by one of the following:

Any party to the suit adversely affected by a decree, or if such party is dead, by his legal representatives under Section 146;

A transferee of the interest of such party, who so far as such interest is concerned, is bound by the decree, provided his name is entered on the record of the suit;

An auction purchaser may appeal against an order in execution setting aside the sale on the ground of fraud;

No other person, unless he is a party to the suit, is entitled to appeal under Section 96.

A person, who is not a party to the suit, may prefer an appeal from a decree/order if he’s bound/aggrieved/prejudicially affected by it via special leave of the appellate Court.

Siddharth jain and Co.

Siddharth Jain & Co. is a full service law firm providing quality and innovative legal solutions to clients all over the world. Our portfolio of legal and quasi-legal services is offered through our head office in New Delhi. Siddharth Jain & Co. was established in 2015. We have a team of lawyers with expertise in different fields. Our expertise revolves around 39 service areas and we continue to enter into new markets continuously. We continue to join new prospects and new clients with us every passing day due to our commitment to quality-based services. Our idea of working involves strict adherence to specified goals and creative modes of achieving them. Siddharth Jain & Co. has always worked towards attaining excellence in every case or problem presented. We continue to strive to become the leader in providing legal services in the country and abroad. Our clientele includes clients from all over the world. With several awards in our profile, we proudly continue to move forward. We are always ready and prepared to welcome and embrace any new challenge. We have worked with and for government agencies. We have worked in rural areas beyond any reach of technology. We have worked with clients alien to law whatsoever. But we have always maintained our prime goal and target of client satisfaction and would continue to go so in future.

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